1. Insertional Achilles Tendinitis:
- Rest: Avoid activities that exacerbate symptoms and give the tendon time to heal.
- Ice: Apply ice to the affected area for 15-20 minutes, several times a day, to reduce inflammation.
- Medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may help alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.
- Physical therapy: Specific exercises and stretches can help strengthen the calf muscles, improve flexibility, and reduce stress on the tendon.
- Orthotic devices: Wearing heel lifts or orthotic shoe inserts can help relieve pressure on the Achilles tendon.
- Night splints: Wearing a splint at night can help stretch the calf and Achilles tendon while sleeping.
- Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT): This non-invasive treatment uses shockwaves to stimulate healing and reduce pain.
- Surgical intervention: If conservative treatments fail to provide relief, surgery may be considered to remove the bone spur and repair the damaged tendon.
2. Non-Insertional Achilles Tendinitis:
- Rest: Give the tendon adequate rest to allow for healing and prevent further damage.
- Ice: Apply ice to the affected area to reduce inflammation and pain.
- NSAIDs: Over-the-counter NSAIDs can help manage pain and reduce inflammation.
- Physical therapy: A structured physical therapy program can help strengthen the calf muscles and improve flexibility.
- Eccentric exercises: Specific exercises that involve lengthening the Achilles tendon while under load can promote healing and improve tendon strength.
- Orthotic devices: Wearing appropriate footwear or using orthotic inserts can help provide support and reduce stress on the tendon.Extracorporeal shockwave therapy: ESWT may be used to stimulate healing and reduce pain.
- Surgical intervention: If conservative treatments fail to alleviate symptoms, surgery may be recommended to remove damaged tissue or repair the tendon.